Vitamin D, Calcium, and Dysmenorrhea

Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a very common gynecological disorder affecting 84.1% of women during childbearing age. The most common symptoms of PD include tiredness, headache, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, and lower abdominal pain that can radiate to both thighs and/or to the low back. The current research suggests that women with low vitamin D and calcium levels may experience more severe PD symptoms. Obstetrics & Gynecology Science, January 2021